New Output in Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Zika Outbreak of 2016 Insights from Twitter


An outbreak of the Zika virus in 2016 caused great concern among the general public and generated a burst of tweets. The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of the types of discussions taking place. Tweets were retrieved from the peak of the Zika outbreak (as identified by Google Trends). Tweets were then filtered and entered in NVivo to be analysed using thematic analysis. It was found that tweets on Zika revolved around seven key themes: pregnancy, travel and the Olympics, mosquitoes and conspiracy, health organisations, health information, travel and tracking, and general discussions around Zika. Our results are likely to be of interest to public health organisations disseminating information related to future outbreaks of Zika and we develop a set of preliminary recommendations for health authorities.

Check out the full paper here:

Robbie Williams Loves an Instagram Story, You Should Too! This is How it Can Benefit Your Brand

Instagram stories have only been around for a few years, however they have become a much-loved part of platform. In August 2016 Instagram started allowing people to upload stories to their accounts.

An Instagram story is when a user uploads a photo or video for a limited time (24 hours). After this time, the ‘story’ will disappear. Stories can be viewed by everyone who follows the user, however there are settings that allow only certain people to view it.


These are called private stories; however, they are not very useful when it comes to promoting a brand. The key benefit of Instagram stories to brands and businesses is that there is no limit to how many can be posted and they don’t save to your account.

Stories are easy to make and have some great features included in the settings that are great for brands and product promotion, these include tagging certain products, hash tagging and also adding a ‘DM me’ button, to allow people to message you about your brand.

If your Instagram account is public (ideal for a brand) anyone using the app can search your username and see the story that you have posted. This means that people can also share your story with others, either by direct message, or if they were tagged they can share it by adding it to their accounts story.

This will then inform you that they have shared it to their story too and are promoting your brand. The benefit of this is that the person who has used your story then shares it with all of their followers allowing for it to reach a wider platform and they can be viewed by a lot more people.

Being tagged in Instagram stories is a great way to gain more followers as people often click on the nametags that are on the story. These tags link back to your page so people have a quick way of getting straight to you and your products / service.

Amazing Instagram story features and how they can help

When posting an Instagram story, you get the option to add a hyperlink. If you choose to add this it could be a great way to promote a product. For example, while talking about a new range of smoothie, linking the website where it can be brought is a great use of the hyperlink feature.

People are more likely to swipe up and buy it right there and then, than remember the specific name and go onto the website later to purchase it.

It also means that while discussing a topic there can be other links to different social media platforms such as YouTube or Facebook where users can find similar information linked to the topic without clicking off Instagram.

An entertaining Instagram story is more likely to get noticed than a posed video on the explore page. This is because stories are short and sweet, which entices people to listen to them.

Also, a recorded story has an extra wow factor as there are lots of funny and interesting effects and sounds you can add to a story to get the audience involved, such as polls and questions. Therefore, if you are trying to sell a product, promoting it on a story would be more beneficial than doing it on a post.

Great ways to boost your brand!

Some of the great things on Instagram stories can really help brands understand what they need to improve on such as polls. These are little questions that you can put on your Instagram story, to let people pick one of the available options given to them.

A great way a brand could utilise this is to ask questions about what products the customers would like to see next season, what they think was the best product, or what they would change.

They are a great way to get feedback and a good sense of what the users would like to see potentially helping the brand know where it needs to change or improve from an easy online quiz poll.

Other features that brands need to use are the hashtag and location icons. The hashtags allow the story to be seen by anyone who searches that hashtag.

A good example of this could be if a brand was promoting a new flavour chocolate bar they would hashtag; chocolate, chocolate bar and confectionary as these would all be words to help get the story to the right place on Instagram, so that it would show for the right audience.

The location icon is useful for small brands as it shows where you are operating. This is really helpful for businesses like hairdressers or nail technicians, as they require a local fan base to gain clients and grow as a brand.

Instagram stories also a has a function where by people can send you direct messages based on the topic you choose, after you’ve posted the question on your story people can start replying. It is the easiest way for a customer to contact a brand as it only takes a few seconds.


Once someone has sent either an answer to your question or another question, there is a button that allows you to add what they have said onto your story. This helps so other people can see you are active at replying and also because it stops people asking the same questions.

Posting a story everyday is a great way to improve the interaction on your page. The more stories you post the more likely your followers are to see it. This is certainly true of many celebrities such as Robbie Williams.

Robbie regularly posts on his stories to keep his fans up to date. This helps to keep his fan base engaged and entertained, as well as ensuring they are the first to know, when any news or big announcements are made.

If you think that Instagram stories could benefits your brand and help you market your brand take a look at our guide to help you make it on Instagram!

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How to Use Twitter to Build a Following for Your Brand

What is it Twitter and who uses it?

Twitter is a great social media tool to have if you want to promote your brand. It is used by many companies and individuals for promotion and also as a site where potential consumers can contact you.

Twitter was created in 2006 and since then has racked up a large number of active users, which now stands at more than 330 million. Twitter works by allowing users to send tweets of 280 characters as often as you please. These tweets can contain photos or videos; however, some people like to just use words as that was the original purpose of this app.


Recent studies show that only a small percent (11.4% as of April 2020) of all Twitter users are between the age of 12-17. This is a huge difference compared to apps such as Instagram and TikTok that have a higher majority of users in the 12-17 age range.

There are a lot of people using Twitter to follow celebrities, influencers and popular businesses, this is because of how easy it is to set up Twitter, as well as how it allows users to keep up to date with a brand’s content, promotions, discounts and new stock.

How to get followers on Twitter

Firstly, an important thing to remember is that promoting an account on another platform where you may have more followers is a great way to start building up a following. However, if you don’t have any other platforms then there are other ways to gain followers.

Some ways of gaining a following are:

Tweet frequently:

Tweeting frequently helps to get your account noticed, the more you tweet the more chances they have to gain followers. Increasing brand awareness by posting lots is a great way to get promotional content out, without having to worry about when it will be seen most as you’ll be posting a lot throughout the day.

Some accounts tweet up to 15 posts a day. Another key thing to think about is tweeting relevant but not original content, for example sharing content and/or tweet or a tweet from another brand and/or celebrity could get some good publicity.

Use popular hashtags:

Twitter is a great place to really get into using great hashtags as there is a large chance of people following you after finding a post connected to a hashtag they were looking for. On Twitter, there is no ‘explore page’ or ‘foryoupage’ the only way for to see people’s posts is to follow them, search hashtags, or other people share their posts.

Utilizing hashtags that are trending and putting them on to your posts means a lot more people are going to see the post.

Post visual-content:

Tweets can be photos, videos or just text. The more visually appealing the post is the more likely people are to notice it. The benefit is that a lot of other posts on Twitter are just text, so this will help yours stand out even more. If you post great quality content that is funny to watch or bold to look at, the chances of gaining followers improves highly.

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Videos are a great promotion tactic as they are more gripping, which is what is ideal when a user is scrolling down a feed. You need your posts to be shareable, what that means is the post has the ability to be shared by lots of people and not loose its context.

This is why videos are great as they explain themselves and they have the potential of being very interesting to watch. The more shares you get the wider scale your brand is covering and the more reach you will achieve, resulting in the potential of more followers, link-clicks and eventually customers.

Make sure you have an inviting profile:

When people click on the brands page it needs to be full of information, and great quality posts, either funny or interesting. Having an inviting profile will mean that people are more likely to stay and interact with more of your posts if they feel engaged and have an interest in them.

A good example of having an inviting profile is having a colorful profile picture and a good informative bio as this helps other users to understand what the business is like and why they should follow it. Similarly, when users tag their friends in your posts, you want your profile to be inviting so that they then follow you and do the same.

Engage with replies, retweets and tags:

When people share your posts, liking the retweet takes no time at all. However, it can have a great reward. If users see that as a brand you are very engaging and friendly they are more likely to follow you.

Replying to questions that users ask you about your work, the products you’re trying to promote will help others as they will recognise the brand as helpful and reliable.

If you want to increase your following and visibility on Twitter, check out our 20 Minute Quick Start Guide To: Getting Noticed on Twitter in 2020. It has some really helpful tips to help your brand grow !

How to Create Engaging Content and Keep with the Trends on Twitter: An Overview of Methods

How to create engaging content

On Twitter, it is really important to make sure your content is engaging due to the fact that people won’t see your page unless they decide to follow you or someone else shares your posts. The most exciting or interesting post will get brands noticed.


Here are a few other ways to make sure that you’re making engaging content multiple times a day:

Create Twitter polls

Twitter polls are a great way of connecting with your followers. The best polls are ones that ask questions about what they expect from brand, what can be changed or improved but also what they love. This tactic is an easy feedback opportunity but also a bit of fun. Other ways to create the polls could be generic questions which people may engage with.

Use other peoples content to attract to your page

Keeping up with other rival brands promoting content can really help you. If they promote something and people backlash it there is an opportunity for your brand to get in and take their disappointed customers over to your page to then see your products helping them make the decision to swap over.

Include visuals in most of your Tweets

Having photos or videos in your tweets can make them way more attractable to scrolling people. Also, people who search hashtags to see overall posts will notice yours first if it stands out as an extra colorful and dramatic post. Another important thing about using visuals is to help people understand the post better, no one likes to read massive texts but seeing a photo with a couple words explaining what’s going on or a video while someone talks, is likely to be watched more by people who are taking in what the video is telling them.

Use the same hashtag for all the related content

This comes in really useful when someone wants to find posts related to your brand and all they have to do is type in your own branded hashtag with only your product details on the page. Use a hashtag that other people wouldn’t use by accident as that will ruin the whole concept if other people post random photos to the page. A hashtag example could be the brand name followed by the date the brand was launched, this hashtag will only be used by your brand to promote the same promotional details on your products.

How to keep up with the trends of Twitter

Trends are a huge part of being able to say you promote your brand well. The most important thing before starting a Twitter is to know what trends you’re going to need to comply with throughout your Twitter journey. Keeping up to date with the forever changing and demanding trends isn’t easy but there are a few ways you can do it;

Tailoring your content to your audience

By often checking who follows you is a great way to see what sort of demographic you should be targeting you content towards. It also helps you to understand if you should be branching out to a different range of people. Once you have a clear understanding of the sort of people that follow you, the brand can start to tailor the content they make so that it is appropriate for that audience. This will also mean your followers are more likely to share your posts if they feel they understand and relate to the content.

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Master the ‘Twitter lingo’

Understanding phrases and terms that are becoming huge trends on social media platforms can help you understand what to say in your tweets. As a brand, you want to be cool and trendy using phrases that have just become big. There are so many abbreviations that others will use and if as a brand you don’t understand them, then you could miss out on a great chance to promote yourselves.

Prevent potential social media embarrassments

A key thing to remember when it comes to social media is that it’s there forever. If you post something without thinking it through fully or share something with the opportunity for opinions to be debated then you could potentially put the brand  in a very awkward situation, which they might not be able to recover from. Some trends can be very political which isn’t something a brand always wants to put themselves into. Knowing which trends to take part in and knowing which ones not to is the most important thing to remember.

Promoted trends

A promoted trend is similar to a brand takeover. It’s when the brand pays to promote themselves for 24 hours on the home page. Everywhere users look they will see the promotions which is great in the sense of gaining potential followers or attracting people to look at your products. However, it’s not the sort of thing to do a lot as people could get annoyed that all they see is your products which could have a negative effect. Knowing when people are most likely to need the products you’re promoting is a great way to tell when you should be paying for the 24 hour promotions.

Use 3rd-Party applications

Keeping up to date with the trends can be really difficult especially as they are also changing regularly. Lots of companies have created 3rd party applications that allow brands to see what’s trending and which hashtags are working the best. There are also apps that allow you to work out what sort of following you have and how you can best target the trends that you choose to use in your content. Twitter has a section where you can see trending files and also the insights from your page.

If you want to increase your following and visibility on Twitter, check out our 20 Minute Quick Start Guide To: Getting Noticed on Twitter in 2020. It has some really helpful tips to help your brand grow!


How to use TikTok Influencer Marketing to Grow your Brand

What are TikTok influencers?

TikTok is still a fairly new application and social media platform, compared to the likes of Instagram and Twitter. Influencer marketing is becoming a much loved and used feature for many businesses, and the new rise of TikTok influencers is no different.

However, due to it being a new platform, many of the influencers are either celebrities or influencers from other platforms, for example an Instagram influencer.

tiktok blog image

This is because they would download TikTok, tell all their Instagram followers that they now have TikTok, and their followers would then follow them on TikTok too. This means that it is harder to become just a TikTok influencer instead of multi social platform influencer.

Despite the challenge, it can be done, and people do become TikTok influencers without being an influencer on another platform. They do this by posting good quality content and engaging videos and build up a following from nothing.

As a business, working with these people with lots of followers means that your business can be promoted on a larger scale. Influencers have a status and key impact over their followers, and are seen as reliable and trustworthy people.

This is especially true, with regards to TikTok. As most of the videos are personal, this makes it easier to feel more connected and bonds are made between the user and the influencer. Having this status can be extremely helpful when promoting products, as people buy into the influencer and the products will essentially sell themselves.

How do you work with TikTok influencers?

Influencer marketing is a very simple yet easily misunderstood concept. Therefore, there are a few things a business needs to be aware of especially with TikTok. One of the main things to pay attention to would be how many likes, comments and followers a potential influencer has.

If the average number of likes and comments are reasonably high in comparison to the number of followers then you know that influencer has a high engagement level and their followers are active on their page.

As a business knowing your target audience is important, especially when branching out to get involvement from an influencer. If they already have a target audience it should be clear from the content they post. Make sure this aligns and matches your own target audience as this will mean getting promotional support from the influencer will be a lot easier.

Knowing what sort of people follow the influencer is really important as they are your essentially the new clients, if these are not the people you want to be reaching out to then it will be a waste of time and money using that influencer.

Make sure that there is a mutual understanding of what sort of content should be posted and how often it should be posted. For example, using ads in their videos that go directly to the website would be a good idea as long as it is relevant to the time and nature of the video.

Don’t jump straight into paying a lot of money to an influencer as it might not work out as originally planned. Paying small amounts to start with before building up the contract is a great idea for influencers of this style.

This is also a great idea as it allows the business time to see if influencer marketing is something that they can benefit the brand more, than other types of promotion. If after some time you believe that it is working, then you can look into hiring more influencers that potentially have a slightly different target audience opening the brand up further.

On the other hand, if you don’t think it’s working you can stop without loosing out on too much. Influencer marketing on TikTok is a very easy and potentially cheap way to get top quality marketing with other great benefits as well. Any business can easily do the necessary research and get in contact with influencers to start up their own promotional content.

 Do TikTok Influencers make a difference and is it worth it?

The main role of the influencer is to reach an audience that the brand has not got access to. Furthermore, the influencer can help promote the brand and its product to potential customers who have not previously heard of the brand and were not aware of them.


By getting involved in influencer marketing it can help to promote the influencers as well as the other way around, especially if the brand is well known. The best mix is when both the brand and the influencer are equally as well known as each other, or when the influencer is so trusted and respected that they can promote a not so popular brand.

The only time this really happens is with small brands or new business’s. Influencers help to raise awareness for brands. However, the business also needs to be able to help the influencer promotion by supporting them with great content and interesting videos.

This is to guide and push the influencer, so that they can then carry on promoting the brand themselves, whilst sticking to your guidelines and identity. Having discount codes for the influencer is a great way to help them promote products.

This is because its normally a very easy link that’s simple to remember, that way even if they haven’t heard of the brand they can trust the influencer to use the same products that they have recommended and got a discount for.

Discount codes also help you measure the effectiveness of the influencer. If lots of sales are achieved using the promoted code, you can be certain that lots of your customers are seeing the influencers posts and buying the products as a result.

If your business isn’t currently using TikTok, and haven’t looked in to TikTok influencer marketing then certainly take a look and find out more. Influencer marketing could be an excellent tool for your company, and help you grow your brand.

If this is something you are interested in, check out our latest Amazon book the ultimate guide to marketing GEN Z.

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TikTok was the Most Downloaded App at the Start of 2020: How Can it Help Market Your Brand?

What is TikTok?

TikTok is a newer style of social networking application available for most mobile devices. The main function of TikTok is uploading and sharing home made videos either for 15 or 60 seconds. The videos can be of anything, however, there are a lot of users who use the app to lip-sync to popular songs or memes.

tiktok blog image

While using TikTok you can also create videos where you talk about your day or make games to play with other people. An example of this could be the ‘never have I ever’ game. This is used to interact with other people who follow you so they can create the same video ‘using your sound’.

Using someone else’s sound is when you create your own video with the same background as the original person, normally this is how videos go viral. TikTok is a huge platform with more than 800 million user’s active per month, the reason it has become so big is because it is so easy to use and fun be involved in.

Another reason it has become so popular in recent months is because many people share a common goal to become TikTok famous. TikTok famous means you have a lot of followers, and get thousands, sometimes millions of views on your videos, almost like an Instagram influencer.

Why a business should use TikTok?

TikTok is a growing platform, and the application will be around for a long time to come as it already has such a large active user group, that will only get bigger. The numbers show that Instagram took six years to get the same number of active users that TikTok currently has.

If your business has a demographic of the younger age groups from around 10-18 years old, then this app is perfect. The majority of users are within that age group, as this app has become huge amongst younger people due to its playful and silly manor.

However, that is not to say older people aren’t using the app, it is just less likely to reach the same numbers of people in older age groups, as there is a smaller percentage of over 18’s actively using the app. Using TikTok to promote a business has become a lot more popular over the last few months.

The developers have noticed this, so they have made it that one bit easier for businesses by adding a couple more functions on top of the originals. These have been made to help brands increase their promotion.

From a business’s point of view, it is a cheap and fun way to promote their products without having to pay too much, and they also can have the enjoyment of making videos and watching the content. The best thing about this app is that it is so easy to make videos and new trends that have the potential of going viral.

Creative, viral content!

The most important way to market your brand on TikTok is to be creative and develop popular and hopefully viral content. Anything that people feel they can replicate or get involved in, then they will. For example, if you replicate a dance or a scene from a meme, users on TikTok will love it and be quick to jump onto trending content.

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Anything with grand movements or funny jokes will grab the attention of TikTok users, most of the viral content are video that people can tag along on, for example an easy lip-sync or a couple movements to a song that are related to your brand would be the best thing to put in the video. An example would be a catchy slogan.

Using the different effects and filters that TikTok has to offer can help boost the amount of views you get; certain effects and filters can help represent the brand. Your business can also pay a charge to have their own filter, which could then be made into a challenge and get others to share it and use it. Before you know it, many users will have got involved, and you will be going TikTok viral.

Important things to know and check before you start

Before promoting your brand on TikTok, remember that the demographic is children and teenagers so if that’s not the target audience on your product then TikTok might not be the right platform for you.

Another thing to do before making any videos is to make sure that what you are going to post shows the brand in a fun and interesting way without making it too unprofessional. The middle ground is perfect for this, however can sometimes be challenging to achieve. Make sure that you are watching other people’s content so that you are aware of what sort of videos are trending at the moment.

Also, it is important to make sure that your idea is an original idea. TikTok hasn’t been around for as long as most other large social media platforms, however, having such large numbers of active users trying to find original content is very difficult. Look into all the potential effects and filters that TikTok has to offer but also make sure that you are familiar with the most commonly used and popular filters and effects.

Checking the most viewed videos to see how they were created and also the effects that are on these videos will be helpful, and give you an idea of where to start. This will also help you to make sure that the promotional content your brand makes is in keeping of the theme of TikTok at that specific time. Trends are always changing and improving as TikTok releases new features and better functions.

If your business isn’t currently using TikTok then certainly create an account and check it out. TikTok could be a great marketing tool for your company, if you approach it and use it properly.

If this is something you are interested in, check out the ultimate guide to marketing GEN Z on TikTok.

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What is an Instagram influencer, and how can influencer marketing benefit my brand? You don’t need Kylie Jenner

What is an Instagram influencer?

An Instagram influencer is someone who has a large following on the social media platform (Instagram) and has built up a large fan base by engaging and encouraging others to get involved on their page. An Instagram influencer has a virtual group of people who watch their videos and like their posts regularly. These followers trust the influencer’s opinion and are often strongly influenced by their decisions, hence the term ‘influencer’.


For many influencers, this is their full-time job and can make a large amount of money doing so. Due to their large and loyal following, they promote and sell various products.

Influencers can work for lots of different companies or brands, and get paid to promote certain products. A key way this is done is through the use of discount codes, and the influencer will then receive a proportion from the sales generated.

In the last five years, there has been an increase in the number of people that have taken up the influencer lifestyle. Influencer marketing is on track to become an £8 billion industry by the end of 2020. Due to the increase in online activity, there are now different categories of influencers, and they go up in stages based on how many followers they have.

People with 1,000 – 10,000 followers are called Nano-influencers. The next level up is the people with 10,000 – 100,000, who are called micro-influencers, and lastly, the people with way over 100,000 and into the millions are called mega-influencers.

It is really important to know the difference when it comes to influencer marketing and looking at how your business can benefit.

How can influencer marketing help my business?

Whether you own a small business or a multimillion-pound business, Instagram influencer marketing is a great way to spread awareness for your products. Having an influencer with a large following to promote your products and give them a good review, increases the opportunity for others who have never heard of your business before to buy your products and follow your brand.


When you are choosing which influencer to contact, try to find someone who already supports similar products to yours. This can act as a key advantage, as they will already have a following that is already interested in that specific area or market.

An example of this could be vegan food. If an influencer has made it clear they are vegan and on their profile, they promote vegan bars, they are very likely to have a large vegan following. This would be a really useful boost if you were running a vegan business or sell vegan products.

If you’re just starting up a business, giving free samples to nano-influencers or micro-influencers could increase sales. This is because they have the highest engagement rate of all the categories.

This means even though they have the least amount of followers, the followers they do have are normally more loyal and active on the account. You are more likely to reach a higher percentage of active followers from ten posts on a micro-influencers account than with one post on a mega-influencers account.

It also means that you won’t have to pay them to sample and review your products, as they are less likely to require payment over some of the bigger influencer names such as Molly-Mae Hague or Bretman Rock. There are a lot of people on Instagram as it is one of the biggest social media platforms in the world.

If you can get your products posted on multiple pages then it’s going to gain a lot more traction. The more times people and potential customers see your product the more times they will look into it and think about purchasing it.

The key is to make your business as big and as spread out across as many different groups of followers as you can, this gives the illusion to people your product is being used and promoted everywhere.

Things to know before getting involved in influencer marketing

Before getting involved in influencer marketing there are a few things you need to be aware of; for example, not all influencers will be willing to give reviews for certain products. Therefore, to avoid wasting time, do lots of research into their page before asking them to partner with or promote your brand.

One of the main things to look into is how many likes and comments they get, this is to see if they have a high engagement level on their page. Another thing to look into is to see what kind of following they have and if they have a specific target audience. If their target audience is clear make sure that it matches the audience your product is designed for.

This could be any group from those who enjoy reading and love cats, to teenagers passionate about make-up and concerts. More factors to consider include: do the influences have the image that you are looking, do they speak the language that is important for you, are they the right age, the right gender and do they live in the right location.

These are all factors to think about before deciding. The influencer you chose will then be the face for your product and brand, so making sure that person is what you want is important.

One of the things that businesses must do before deciding who they are going to ask, is to look into how many other promotions they have done and see if they were successful.

Reading the comments is so important as it allows you to see if their followers still trust their opinion and if their following is also actively buying the products.

This also allows you to see if the influencer is positive and active at answering the questions people may ask them, as that could help increase sales as lots of more information could be given.

Once you’ve found the influencer or influencers who you believe could help increase interest and raise the sales of your products the last step to take is making sure that if you agree to pay them, you are paying a fair price for the service they can provide.

Having an agreement such as posting one promotion every month can allow for you to see how much you are gaining from having an influencer marketing your products. Therefore, you can see if its working and then you can look into hiring another person.

However, if you don’t think it’s working and benefiting your business, you can stop. It’s a very easy and potentially cheaper type of marketing, that you can get into and benefit from.

If you are interested in Instagram influencer marketing check out our Insta Business book on Amazon for more guidance and tips to making it on Instagram.

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Do people really believe the 5G coronavirus (COVID-19) conspiracy theory?

As social distancing continues and covid-19 patients self-isolate, there are many coronavirus conspiracy theories which have been spreading on social media platforms. One of them has been falsely claiming that 5g technology has been responsible for the spread of the virus.

Other conspiracy theories have traced the origin of the virus to the Chinese government as a biological weapon. Australia hit back at the United States for the link that put a connection between the Wuhan Institute of Virology and COVID-19, and the New York Times noted that China Lab rejected the claims.

Fact checking has been more important than ever as there are other 10 current conspiracy theories, for instance, see this article COVID: Top 10 current conspiracy theories and one of them involves Bill Gates as a scapegoat. The World Health organisation has noted that during the coronavirus pandemic a battle against false information has also been taking place. Fact-checking has been more important than ever during the covid-19 pandemic. As conspiracy theorists run rampant across the digital landscape.

It has become more important to rapidly analyse content from social media platforms to understand the drivers of false news and to develop strategies to fight misinformation. In our latest studies published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) entitled COVID-19 and the 5G Conspiracy Theory: Social Network Analysis of Twitter Data we analyse the 5G Covid-19 conspiracy theory. More specifically, we set out to investigate which Twitter users and Web sources were influential.

We found that Infowars and other fake news websites were influential and Twitter users linked to YouTube videos which argued for the link between 5G and COVID-19. We also found that an individual account was set up to spread the conspiracy theory which should have been taken down by Twitter much sooner.

Overall we found that only a handful of users truly believed the conspiracy theory (35%), and others users inadvertently raised its profile to make it a trending topic on Twitter. We recommend that other Twitter users report such misinformation rather than engage and/or amplify it.

Our paper full paper can be read here: