Best Influencer Detection on Twitter: Using NodeXL Pro to identify influential Manchester United Fans
Recently I created a short video-summary of a project which collected longitudinal data on Manchester United FC over the course of the 2017/18 season using NodeXL Pro. Be sure to watch the video below.
These days I am working as an Assistant Professor at Northumbria University, recently, I presented a paper based on my PhD research, recently completed at the Information School based at the University of Sheffield, at the 9th International Social Media and Society Conference which had an acceptance rate of 47%.
The paper titled Moral Panic through the Lens of Twitter: An Analysis of Infectious Disease Outbreaks can be accessed here. The paper was also summarised in a blog post by Professor Axel Bruns, President of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR).
At the awards ceremony, I received the award of ‘most engaged Twitter user’ and won a series of prizes (pictured above). The hashtag for the conference contained over 400 unique users, and generated over 2,500 unique tweets and became a trending topic in Copenhagen (where the conference was taking place).
Croatia’s World Cup consolation: Google searches soar as world seeks information on finalists
Croatia may have lost to France in the World Cup final, but the small Eastern European nation may just have won something altogether more precious – worldwide recognition on a whole new level.
Social media users are tweeting about Croatia like never before and web searches are through the roof. The country has long been a holiday hotspot, but many people don’t seem to know much more than that about it. That all seemed to change dramatically over the World Cup.
Croatia’s progress to the 2018 final was something of a surprise. Coming from a nation of just 4m people, the team displayed true character and grit to battle to the end to take on France, one of the favourites to win. And while Croatia didn’t take home the trophy, the nation is likely to benefit massively in other ways.
Google Trends data highlights, astonishingly, that Google web search queries for “Croatia” have increased to the highest levels in history as people around the world search and locate information using the keyword “Croatia”. Google ranks search popularity from zero to 100, where a value of 100 is the peak popularity for a term, and 50 half as popular. In the 2014 tournament, Croatia’s score was 28, in 2018 the score is 100.
In a period of just one hour during the semi-final, 350,000 tweets were also sent out including the word “Croatia”. That’s roughly 80 times more than on an average day. And towards the end of the night on the day of the final against France, more than a million tweets had been sent out that included the word “Croatia”.
A country would usually have to spend millions if they wanted to gain this type of interest. This itself is a very rewarding aspect of progression in the tournament as it equates to massive free exposure for a nation.
Your next holiday?
Even before the final, the Croatian tourist board announced it had observed a 250% increase in website visits from across the world, compared to the same time last year. Croatian tourism outlets also capitalised on the increased interest by launching specific marketing communications across social media. This included a promotional video shared on YouTube by
the Croatian National Tourist Board which has been viewed over 250,000 times.
Meanwhile, the Croatian economy seemed to be enjoying a boost from World Cup interest at home. The national tax administration indicated an increase in spend during the tournament. Individual stores reported a 400% increase in sales as compared to previous years as locals stocked up on beverages, snacks, and television sets.
Although it was not the dream end for a Croatian team which showed extreme courage in reaching the final, progressing in the tournament has led to a monumental increase in the digital footprint of the country. That, in turn, has the potential to deliver tangible benefits to the Croatian economy and the tourism sector.
More evidence-based articles about football and the World Cup:
I have had the following article “Croatia’s World Cup consolation: Google searches soar as world seeks information on finalists” published for The Conversation, be sure to check it out here: https://theconversation.com/croatias-world-cup-consolation-google-searches-soar-as-world-seeks-information-on-finalists-99959?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=twitterbutton
The Government Office for Science in the United Kingdom published a report which examines the potential of distributed ledger technology which blockchain uses. They also released a video which nicely summaries blockchain technology. It is well worth watching for anyone unfamiliar with blockchain.
Twitter can be argued to serve as a media monitoring tool and provides immediate insight into public views and opinions. Many tools to analyse Twitter data have emerged, and a powerful tool for the analysis of Twitter data is known as Visibrain which has access to the Twitter Firehose API (i.e., almost 100% of tweets). Some have even suggested social media could be used to predict the price of certain crypto-currencies.
Blockchain receives over 6 million tweets a month on Twitter and as our focus is to examine potential uses of the technology we devised keywords to extract insight specifically into the potential applications of blockchain technology.
The keyword string consisted of “Blockchain (applications OR application OR app)”. Figure 1 below displays the volume of tweets which are generated related to the potential of blockchain technologies in the previous 30 days.
Figure 1 – Volume of tweets related to blockchain applications
A large amount of content is generated and a fairly large number of unique users are interested in the applications of blockchain. Visibrain also tells us that at least 8,109 articles have been shared related to this topic on Twitter over the previous 30 days.
Using Visibrain it is also possible to dig into the locations of people tweeting , and figure 2 below shows this.
Figure 2 – Geographic distribution of Twitter users
What is immediately striking about this is that at least 10,877 tweets were from users from the Russian Federation. This is rare because typically Russia accounts for a very low amount of tweets on other topics. Additionally, it was interesting to see that users from at least 196 countries were tweeting about this topic over the previous 30 days. This highlights the global nature of blockchain technologies. The gender ratio suggested more males (64%) than females (36%) were tweeting.
It is also possible to extract information related to the occupation of users tweeting, as highlighted by figure 3 below.
Figure 3 – Occupation of users tweeting
The occupations of entrepreneur, founder, and business may appear due to the potential of crypto-currency as investment, and also because of the wider appeal of blockchain.
It is also possible to examine hashtags which are used and figure 4 below provides insight into some of the hashtags that were used.
Figure 4 – Hashtags used in this set of tweets
It is interesting to see ‘#cnntoken’ appear among the most used hashtags. This relates to the Content Neutrality Network a Blockchain-based Content Ecosystem.
Some of the most popular tweets on this topic (containing the highest impressions) are listed in figure 5 below.
Figure 5 – Top 2 tweets by impressions
The first tweet related to Digitize Coin’s mobile application which is implementing a new feature, and it received over 16 million impressions. Followed by this it was an account by Node Haven related to Blockchain hardware and an upcoming blockchain conference. This tweet received over 12 million impressions. Impressions are a figure which tell us how many times a tweet appeared on a Twitter feed.
I would also recommend examining the NodeXL Graph gallery for a network graph on the applications of blockchain. Figure 6 below displays Twitter activity over the previous day related to the potential applications of blockchain technology.
Figure 6 – NodeXL network graph
There are a couple of interesting takeaways from examining the graph above and also by examining the metrics on the graph gallery:
- One aspect is that certain users and accounts are link-baiting by using the hashtag ‘blockchain’ which is not surprising as it is a popular topic.
- Another interesting finding was that the graph appeared to contain many references to ‘cryptocurrency which highlights its popularity as an application of blockchain.
- A further interesting aspect was how the graph from G6 onwards to G55 contained smaller pockets of discussion between users surrounding events, news, and applications of blockchain. This highlights its broad appeal and vast potential of the technology.
Overall it was possible to gain insight into some of the potential uses of blockchain as shared on Twitter. These included crypto-currencies, smart-contracts, hardware, dating apps, supply chain, ride sharing, voting systems, retail, digital marketing, medicine, travel, and verification among many more. Future work will seek to perform a more in-depth analysis of this data using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods.
PhD thesis published: Using Twitter data to provide qualitative insights into pandemics and epidemics
Just a quick update to say that my PhD thesis has now been published which was titled:
Using Twitter data to provide qualitative insights into pandemics and epidemics
The thesis can be accessed by following this link: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/20367/
The abstract is provided below:
Background: One area of public health research specialises in examining public views and opinions surrounding infectious disease outbreaks. Although interviews and surveys are valid sources of this information, views and opinions are necessarily generated by the context, rather than spontaneous. As such, social media has increasingly been viewed as legitimate source of pragmatic, unfiltered public opinion.
Objectives: This research attempts to better understand how users converse about infectious disease outbreaks on the social media platform Twitter. The study was undertaken in order to address a gap in knowledge because previous empirical studies that have analysed infectious disease outbreaks on Twitter have focused on employing quantitative methods as the primary form of data analysis. After analysing individual cases on Ebola, Zika, and swine flu, the study performs an important comparison in the types of discussions taking place on Twitter and is the first empirical study to do so.
Methods: A number of pilot studies were initially designed and conducted in order to help inform the main study. The study then manually labels tweets on infectious disease outbreaks assisted by the qualitative analysis programme NVivo, and performs an analysis using the Health Belief Model, concepts around information theory, and a number of sociological principles. The data were purposively sampled according to when Google Trends Data showed a heightened interest in the respective outbreaks, and a case study approach was utilised.
Results: A substantial number of themes were uncovered which were not reported in previous literature, demonstrating the potential of qualitative methodologies for extracting greater insight into public health opinions from Twitter data. The study noted several limitations of Twitter data for use in qualitative research. However, results demonstrated the potential of Twitter to identify discussions around infectious diseases that might not emerge in an interview and/or which might not be included in a survey.
I published a new blog post for the LSE Impact blog examining the implications of Twitter’s 280-character increase on academic research. The abstract is copied below and a link is provided to the full entry.
Twitter makes its data available in real-time and at no cost, making it a popular data source for many academic researchers. Wasim Ahmed discusses some of the implications of the decision to expand the character limit from 140 to 280. Greater space makes for greater depth and detail, addressing the difficulties of interpretation that 140-character tweets would sometimes present. However, some data retrieval tools have been slow to catch up, and the change may also make historical comparisons problematic. Overall, the character increase is of value to researchers and should inspire further innovative and exciting research.
Read my full post here:
Peer reviewed book chapter on the ethical, legal, and methodological challenges of researching Twitter is now open access!
This chapter provides an overview of the specific legal, ethical, and privacy issues that can arise when conducting research using Twitter data. Existing literature is reviewed to inform those who may be undertaking social media research. We also present a number of industry and academic case studies in order to highlight the challenges that may arise in research projects using social media data. Finally, the chapter provides an overview of the process that was followed to gain ethics approval for a Ph.D. project using Twitter as a primary source of data. By outlining a number of Twitter-specific research case studies, the chapter will be a valuable resource to those considering the ethical implications of their own research projects utilizing social media data. Moreover, the chapter outlines existing work looking at the ethical practicalities of social media data and relates their applicability to researching Twitter.
You can access the book chapter here: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/126729/
Social media networks have grown in user base faster than any other form of technology in existence. It is true that social networking users continue to rise significantly, with more and more people seeing it as an excellent tool for connecting with others and creating more meaningful relationships which have given companies the chance of taking advantage of this knowledge.
There are millions of people using Facebook, Twitter and many other sites on a daily basis. Even on the go, most people use it to keep in touch with friends and families, others to expand their network of friends and some to build businesses.
Successful businesses know that they need to be where the people are, right now, social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are where everyone is. If your business isn’t using social media effectively you will be left behind. So why should your organisation jump on the bandwagon?
TRADITIONAL MEDIA IS OUTDATED
Traditional media is gradually losing its impact on consumers. People are smarter, and they’re less likely to fall for gimmicks or celebrity endorsements. Consumers are doing more research before purchasing any product or service. More and more, they are going online to see what feedback they can garner before making a decision and so social media is the modern platform for networking or advertising.
ESTABLISHES BRAND IMAGE
It is not only the youths that are active social media users, it’s everyone. That’s the more reason why it is important for businesses to pick the best form of social media outlets for their organisations and begin to build their brand image. It offers you a chance to establish your business as one that is trustworthy and promote yourself as someone with skills, insight, and knowledge. It is not ideal to waste time trying to get your name on every website available, focus on the ones that will best benefit your organisation. You simply cannot buy this form of brand awareness in any other way, and that is one of the most exciting aspects of social media for business.
When you become an active member of social communities, your company can better understand its target markets. You are able to easily discover who wants to buy your service and products and it has proven to be the best way to reach your audience. Through online engagement with your customers, you can establish a good communication that can help to strengthen customer loyalty and trust and there would be increased customer support, you’ll find that customers will recommend your brand to others through forums, microblogging, and video sites.
POTENTIAL TO ATTRACT NEW CUSTOMERS
The use of social media as a means of marketing and networking has helped many companies attract new customers, with millions of people using the social media, it offers every organization a chance to get a substantial amount of customers for your niche, if your target is to the youth, elderly or any other group of people, there is a chance of getting customers to your products.
ABILITY TO PROMOTE NEW PRODUCTS
There is nothing more exciting than a platform that offers you a chance to create a buzz about a product or service that your company offers. Are you trying to spread the word about a particular product or service that your business is now offering? Doing so via social media is a great place to start and spread the word.
IT ALLOWS A BRAND TO MONITOR AND ADDRESS WHAT YOUR AUDIENCE IS SAYING
Using social media effectively in marketing, via tools like NodeXL, allows you to monitor and addressing what your customers are saying about you and your products. One of the central components of social media is how incredibly viral its effect is, and one small thing could easily develop into a huge problem if left unaddressed.
Twitter, for example, provides increased access to its data which allows you to see who’s mentioning your brand in their tweets. Positive comments are always great, but the negative comment may make your business suffer, so it’s important that you address these immediately.
- It offers you a chance to engage your audience in an ongoing dialogue
- Gain competitive knowledge
- Understand consumers need
- Gain an understanding of influential users offering you a chance to meet and share your products
Social media is the new place for brand marketing, but it’s important that you understand how it works so that you can effectively use it to form a good relationship with your audience and promote your brand.
I am a doctoral graduate from the information school, University of Sheffield. I started to use social media blogs to disseminate my work as soon as I started my Ph.D. By doing so I managed to generate interest and buzz in my work all around the world.
More recently I have managed to help organisations boost their social media profiles and monitor their audiences. I am skilled at making networks “work” and harnessing powerful online and offline buzz.
So far I have delivered over 40 talks on my research including a talk to the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN), as well as to the UK government. I have also published over 30 research outputs across conferences, journals, books, and magazines.
I have also been a keynote speaker at Boston University College of Communication as well to the Polytechnic of Šibenik. I have also worked with external organizations such as Manchester United FC, and attracted the attention of the mainstream media. I have also appeared on BBC Radio Sheffield and in the Sheffield star.
Feel free to contact me to see how I could help your organisation.