Predictions that a global pandemic will wipe out a large percentage of the population is regarded as a genuine threat. And it was recently reported that an outbreak of a drug-resistant infection could kill 80,000 people in the UK.
A man protests for the mandatory quarantine of everyone that has returned from Ebola affected countries in front of the White House in Washington, D.C., on Oct.24, 2014. Photographer: Mark Wilson/Getty Images.
In terms of a threat that has just passed, if we think back to September of last year, at the peak of the Ebola outbreak. Conversations about the virus on Twitter started to increase. Due to the accumulation of news reports and sensationalised headlines, similar to the one above.
The actual threat, however, as opposed to the perceived public threat, remained low. Fear and hysteria may not allow people to think, or act logically during an outbreak. So, it is crucial to have an awareness of how people are communicating about an infectious disease. Using real-time data from Twitter it is possible for researchers to gauge public opinion on infectious disease outbreaks.
Why use Twitter?
Twitter feasibly offers researchers millions of views on an outbreak that are available in real-time. This allows the examination of how a subset of the population may react to an infectious disease outbreak. There is ongoing research on why people may have negative views towards vaccines, for example, as this could affect the spread of a disease.
Picture: Getty Images
Gauging public opinion at the precise time of an outbreak may not be feasible using traditional methods; as designing a survey or questionnaire is an expensive, and time-consuming process. Though, most research suggests that data from Twitter is best used in combination with traditional methods rather than as a substitute. Especially for research that predicts the occurrence of an infectious disease.
Challenges of using Twitter
On the other hand, not all adult Internet users are on Twitter, but adult internet users on Twitter is increasing. According to the Pew Research Centre, 23% of adult internet users also use Twitter (18% in 2013); 19% of the entire adult population. Twitter, however, is most popular with those who are under 50, and college educated.
When these figures are compared to Facebook, Twitter does not stack-up well, as 71% of adult internet users are on Facebook; 58% of the entire population. And 65% of Facebook users are 65 and over. Those who tweet about outbreaks may be overrepresented in relation to the national offline population, but these people may be under-represented in survey data.
It is also difficult to obtain Twitter data as Twitter only provides a sample of data to researchers. And obtaining full Twitter data can be quite costly for small to medium sized research groups. There are also issues that arise surrounding spam on the platform, and developing methods of filtering out useful content can be quite challenging.
Current research on Infectious diseases using Twitter
Current research on infectious disease outbreaks suggests that Twitter offers a method of understanding what a subset of the population communicate about in real-time. The misconceptions that people may hold, and whether these will be harmful in a public health epidemic or pandemic.
A man dressed in protective hazmat closing leaves after treating a nurse in Texas who is diagnosed with the Ebola virus. Photographer: Mike Stone/Getty Images
Specifically on the Ebola outbreak, early research indicates that there may have been medical misinformation present on the platform regarding vaccines, the role of health officials, and the cure and transmission of Ebola.
My own research involves using Twitter data related to the Ebola outbreak to better understand the content on the platform, how people communicate about Ebola, and to examine the types of information that is present on the platform.
In the present day, research teams are developing better methods in analysing social media data. So this type of research will start to become more sophisticated in the future.
Ebola is a unique word particularly for an infectious disease; in comparison to Bird Flu or Swine Flu, for example, where developing search queries may be difficult. In the case of Ebola, using the keyword on its own, for me, has been sufficient to gather an enormous amount of tweets. And for languages supported on Twitter, ‘Ebola’ is used across 15 languages and 7 languages have their own translation. As shown in the table below:
|English, German, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Dutch, Turkish, Hungarian, Swedish, Polish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, Hindi||Use ‘Ebola’|
|Russian, Japanese, Arabic Korean, Thai, Urdu, Farsi||Different keyword|
I found that my sample of tweets contain languages which have different translation of Ebola as Twitter users may opt to use ‘Ebola’ rather than their own translation. For example, Russian tweeters may use ‘Ebola’ rather than ‘Эбола’.
In order to examine the percentage of English tweets relative to those in other languages; I gathered over a million tweets using Mozdeh which uses Twitter’s Search API. The tweets were gathered over an 11 day period starting 27th of November and ending on the 7th of December 2014.
I used the language metadata to work out the frequencies of these using SPSS, and I have created a table to show the different languages:
*These languages have their own translation of ‘Ebola’, but users have still chosen to use ‘Ebola’.
**Not all tweets have language identifiers
The keyword Ebola was picked up across 22 out of 29 languages that Twitter supports. It is interesting to note that 62.3% of Ebola tweets are in English, and Spanish tweets are the second most frequent (21.8%), the third most frequent tweets are in Portuguese (5.9%). For my PhD research I am focusing on English language tweets and this type of analysis tells me that there are a sufficient number of English language tweets related to the Ebola epidemic.
A limitation of this, however, is that I was only able to draw up frequencies of languages that are ‘supported’ by Twitter, for which there is metadata. And not for languages which do not have language identifiers, such as Sub-Saharan African languages.
In the next post I will look at the number of tweets on Ebola that have geolocation data and cross-tabulate these with language identifiers. These results form a part of a larger project which has ethics approval.
In a blog post comment I was asked what tools are good from a usability and interface perspective. And I thought this would make for a good blog post. The tools covered in this blog were recommended to me by my PhD supervisor. Many of these tools have existing guides, videos or instructional tutorials and rather than provide my own I have provided the links to these.
Users of these tools are reminded that the data obtained via the tools should be used in a fair and responsible manner. And this means adhering to Twitter’s Rules of the Road as well as applicable ethical codes of practice and data protection laws.
TAGS (Twitter Arching Google Spreadsheet)
System: TAGS is a Web based tool so it will work on most operating systems.
Download TAGS: https://tags.hawksey.info/get-tags/
TAGS Support Forums: https://tags.hawksey.info/forums/
System: Mozdeh only works on Windows and it is advisable to use a Desktop computer (there are 32 and 64 bit versions).
Download Mozdeh: http://mozdeh.wlv.ac.uk/installation.html
Mozdeh User Guide: http://mozdeh.wlv.ac.uk/resources/MozdehManual.docx
Mozdeh Theoretical overview: http://mozdeh.wlv.ac.uk/resources/TwitterTimeSeriesAndSentimentAnalysis.pdf
Twitter query set generation with Mozdeh: http://mozdeh.wlv.ac.uk/TwitterQuerySetGeneration.html
System: Chorus only runs on Windows. It is also advisable to use Chorus with a desktop computer.
Request to download Chorus: http://chorusanalytics.co.uk/chorus/request_download.php
Chorus Tweetcatcher Desktop manual: http://chorusanalytics.co.uk/manuals/Chorus-TCD_usermanual.pdf
YouTube tutorial: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmCrmiBOOvw
I made another list a while back ‘A list of tools to capture Twitter data’ at: https://wasimahmed1.wordpress.com/2015/01/30/a-list-of-tools-to-capture-twitter-data/
Also be sure to check out via Dr Deen Freelon’s curated list at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UaERzROI986HqcwrBDLaqGG8X_lYwctj6ek6ryqDOiQ/edit
You can catch me on Twitter @was3210
The World Health Organisation writes that Ebola, a haemorrhagic fever, is a very severe and fatal illness with an average fatality rate of 50%. The first outbreak of Ebola occurred in 1976. The first case of Ebola, outside of West Africa, was reported in the U.S on September 19th 2014. The current Ebola outbreak has taken more lives and infected more people than all the other outbreaks combined. And Twitter provides a platform for people to express their views and opinions on Ebola.
Chew and Eysenbach, for example, used Twitter to monitor the mentions of Swine Flu during the 2009 pandemic. They found that Twitter provided health authorities with the potential to become aware of the concerns, which were raised by the public. Similarly, Szomszor, Kostkova, and Louis examined Swine Flu on Twitter and found that Twitter offers the ability to sample large populations for health sentiment (public views and opinions). Signorini, Segre, and Polgreen also found that by using Twitter it was possible to understand user’s interests and concerns during the Swine Flu outbreak.
In 2010, Chew and Eysenbach wrote that Swine Flu was the first global pandemic which had occurred in the age of Web 2.0, and argued that this was a unique opportunity to investigate the role of technology for public health. Fast forward to the current outbreak of Ebola, this is the first time a global outbreak of Ebola has occurred in the age of Web 2.0.
And as the number of Twitter users has increased since 2010, there is the possibility to examine the recent Ebola outbreak on a larger scale.
In relation to the Ebola outbreak on Twitter. A study by Oluwafemi, Elia and Rolf published last year examined misinformation for Ebola on Twitter. This study found that the most common types of misinformation on Ebola were, that ingesting a plant ‘Ewedu’, blood transfusions, or drinking salt water could cure Ebola. Another study by Jin et al, which was published last year, found that there were conspiracy theories, innuendos, and rumours on Twitter related to Ebola. Jin et al looked at the time period between late September to late October (2014). Among some of the rumours reported, was that the Ebola vaccine only worked on white people, that Ebola patients had risen from the dead, and that terrorists would contract Ebola and spread it around the world.
Therefore, Twitter has the potential to provide insight into public views and opinions related to the Ebola outbreak, which would allow health authorities to become aware of the public concerns. Furthermore, by examining the rumours related to Ebola health authorities will be able to dispel false information via new or existing health campaigns.
In the next post I will examine the language dynamics of tweets related to Ebola.
I would like to thank Jennifer Salter, from the health informatics research group, for reading and providing extremely valuable feedback on an earlier version of this blog post.
Chew, C., & Eysenbach, G. (2010). Pandemics in the age of Twitter: Content analysis of tweets during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. PLOS ONE, 5(11).
Fang Jin; Wei Wang; Liang Zhao; Dougherty, E.; Yang Cao; Chang-Tien Lu; Ramakrishnan, N., “Misinformation Propagation in the Age of Twitter,” Computer , vol.47, no.12, pp.90,94, Dec. 2014
Signorini A, Segre AM, Polgreen PM. (2011) The Use of Twitter to Track Levels of Disease Activity and Public Concern in the U.S. during the Influenza A H1N1 Pandemic. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19467. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019467
Szomszor, M., Kostkova, P., & St Louis, C. (2011). Twitter informatics: Tracking and understanding public reaction during the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic. In Proceedings – 2011 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, WI 2011 (Vol. 1, pp. 320–323). doi:10.1109/WI-IAT.2011.311
WHO. (2015). WHO | Ebola virus disease. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/ [Last accessed 20/01/2015].
Oyeyemi Sunday Oluwafemi, Gabarron Elia, Wynn Rolf. Ebola, Twitter, and misinformation: a dangerous combination? BMJ 2014; 349 :g6178
Starting this week, I’m going to be posting blog posts about my PhD research. I’m currently looking at Twitter to better understand public views and opinions related to the Ebola outbreak. I have gathered tweets on Ebola using both open source, and industry specific software. And monitored the international news coverage of Ebola very carefully. I have a series of blog posts lined up which will cover some of the following topics:
- Using Twitter to gather public views and opinions on Ebola
- The different languages people use to Tweet about Ebola
- The number of tweets on Ebola that have geolocation data
- The number of Ebola tweets that have geolocation and language identifiers
- A comparison of Ebola tweets with geolocation data across different APIs
- Popular hashtags, TAG and word clouds on Ebola for Firehose data
- TAG and word cloud comparisons across the REST, Streaming, and Firehose APIs
- Network analysis using NodeXL
A list of tools that I have used to capture data from Twitter and which worked:
Twython at: https://github.com/ryanmcgrath/twython
with the Palladian Extension (obtained via the app). Instructions on set up here: http://tech.knime.org/wiki/how-to-get-twitter-data-into-knime . Using the Twitter nodes from the extension menu provided by KNIME is much better. The instructions on setting this up are here : http://www.knime.org/blog/knime-twitter-nodes I could not figure out a way to extract the tweets.
NodeXL at: http://nodexl.codeplex.com/
Visibrain (Commercial): http://www.visibrain.com/en/
Nvivo/Ncapture at: http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo_add-ons.aspx
TweetMapper at: http://tweetmapper.us
Twitonomy at: http://www.twitonomy.com
Webometrics at: http://lexiurl.wlv.ac.uk/index.html
Follow the Hashtag at: http://analytics.followthehashtag.com/#/
iScience Maps at: http://tweetminer.eu
More tools (require programming knowledge) from Deen Freelon’s curated Google Sheets template at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UaERzROI986HqcwrBDLaqGG8X_lYwctj6ek6ryqDOiQ/edit it is a great list and I make sure to add to it:
DMI-TCAT at: https://github.com/digitalmethodsinitiative/dmi-tcat
yourTwapperKeeper at: https://github.com/540co/yourTwapperKeeper
140dev at: http://140dev.com/
Hosebird at: https://github.com/twitter/hbc
Pattern at: http://www.clips.ua.ac.be/pattern
poll.emic at: https://github.com/sbenthall/poll.emic
Social Feed Manager at: http://gwu-libraries.github.io/social-feed-manager/
SocialMediaMineR at: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/SocialMediaMineR/
tStreamingArchiver at: https://github.com/brendam/tStreamingArchiver
twarc at: https://github.com/edsu/twarc
tweepy at: https://github.com/tweepy/tweepy
Twitter-Tap at: https://github.com/janezkranjc/twitter-tap
Twitter Stream Downloader at: https://github.com/mdredze/twitter_stream_downloader
TWurl at: https://github.com/twitter/twurl
Be sure to check out my other list: ‘A list of tools to capture Twitter data’ at: https://wasimahmed1.wordpress.com/2015/01/30/a-list-of-tools-to-capture-twitter-data/
Also be sure to check out via Dr Deen Freelon’s curated list at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UaERzROI986HqcwrBDLaqGG8X_lYwctj6ek6ryqDOiQ/edit You can catch me on Twitter @was3210
My six month progress report is due in soon so I decided to do a blog post about some of the topics and issues I have encountered, and with which I am currently battling with. I am looking at pandemics and epidemics on Web 2.0. More recently, however, I have been investigating the Ebola epidemic, and I have been collecting Ebola related tweets.
Big data is a current buzzword within academia and is considered by some to be the new oil. However, keeping with the oil analogy, is it real oil or snake oil? This issue was chronicled by Simon Moss in a Wired article Big Data: New Oil or Snake Oil? Simon discusses the issue of normalising big data in an organisational sense. My issue is that of information quality, that is, the data is big, but, at times, it is of a poor quality. When the data is filtered it is not as big as it once was, and so it becomes little data. However, this small or little data is much more valuable in comparison to the larger set of data.
Ethical issues are ever present in social media research. The argument in favour of the utilisation of Web 2.0 for research is centred on the argument on whether the data is in the public domain. This raises questions on whether there is informed consent. Moreover, do Twitter users know that I am gathering this data? If I ask for consent for a tweet on Ebola that I captured in August would I even get a reply? There is a sense, as a Twitter user, that when you send a Tweet out that after a while it goes away. Thus, it is imperative that Twitter users are involved in the decision progress when discussing ethical issues. This was discussed at a conference I attended in November, Picturing the Social: Analysing Social Media Images.
I recently viewed a talk by Farida Vis which formed a part of the digital culture conference, improving reality. A very well-articulated example of the human influence on an algorithm was provided by Farida. This was of an advert on Facebook which promoted an assisted reproduction program, with a picture of a baby. Farida argues that this reflects how those who programmed the algorithm understand gender normative issues. That is, those who wrote the code held a schema whereby they believed a women of a certain age should have children. More recently, on Twitter I witnessed an advert that was advertising a laptop with the caption ‘Costs less than what you spend on Pizza last year’ which resulted in livid responses e.g. ‘Twitter what are you trying to say?’ This advert could have been targeted at all users, so this may not be the best example of a targeted algorithm. A further example is that of adverts for educational courses from Facebook, before I started university. This leads to a question of how much influence social media has on young adults. There is scope here, also, to examine how websites such as Amazon create suggestions. How does their algorithm work? And where does the human schemas fit in to this.
When talking about methods there is a tendency to select either a quantitative or qualitative research philosophy. However, in regards to social media research using a mixed method approach will yield richer results. That is, a method of analysis such as network analysis should be complemented with content analysis. If we limit ourselves to a particular research philosophy we will learn less from the data. So, I hope to employ a range of methods in analysing my own data. A related issue around methods, is that of the cost of big data. Big data is certainly out of reach for most academics and this is further exacerbated by stringent terms and conditions which restrict data sharing. The issue of whether the data is available for free, or whether there is a tool to obtain the data is also shaping the platforms I look at.
In my dataset of tweets images occur with great frequency and are often represented as a block of web links when scrolling down a spreadsheet. When I start to filter the dataset should I remove these links? An observation of big data is that it is associated with words and not images. However, in regards to images on Twitter; I would argue that they form a larger network of big data. According to one estimate, there are 250 million images shared on Twitter daily. However, these are overlooked in the majority of Twitter research. That is, during the 2009/2010 epidemic of H1N1, and the various subsequent outbreaks, images must have been shared on Twitter. The images would have formed an integral part of how a person may subsequently think about outbreaks. However, there was no evidence based research examining these images. Comparing images from different time points allows us to see whether narratives told via images remain the same or whether these change.
In text references:
The Wired News Article I mentioned can be found here: http://www.wired.com/2014/10/big-data-new-oil-or-snake-oil/
The talk by Farida Vis on algorithmic culture I mentioned can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBXddqzIZTA
[Edited on 26/01/15]